Sumer is said to be the oldest known civilization. So where does a person start when studying Sumer?
This website will start with a map.
When you discover that Ethiopia was a "Greater Ethiopia" thousands of years ago,
then Sumerians literally had African Kingdoms on their doorstep. Sumer had ancient African neighbours.
So Sumerians probably had African lineage. [Sumerians were probably descendants of Africans from Havilah or Raamah cultures.]
[This "genesis map" is based upon analysis of Genesis 2:10-14 and Genesis 10:6-12 ].
Some "satellite archaeology" information is also used to locate ancient river systems.
1.The Genesis map (aethiopia.jpg) corresponds approximately to what archaeologists call an
"Afro-Arabian Cultural Complex" (AACC) in Western Arabia and Southern Arabia.
i.e An Afro-Arabian Cultural Complex,Sabir/Sabr culture, etc.
2.The Genesis map suggests that the AACC also had control of ancient river systems that are now extinct.
This is possibly something that archaeologists have yet to discover.
i.e. 2A: That Havilah existed as a culture based around the Gihon river,
and that the Havilah culture died when the Gihon river became extinct.
2B: That Raamah culture existed and possibly controlled rivers that flowed
into the Rub Al Khali region,and Sumerian homeland.
So Raamah culture possibly contributed to the beginnings of the Sumerian nation.
Raamah culture died when the Rub Al Khali region became a desert.
This information can be considered as a more recent "Out of Africa" migration.
But it is an "Out of Africa" migration that caucasian scientists don't want to discuss openly.
To understand Sumer, you need to consider the existence of an empire more ancient than Sumerian civilization.
Whether that Empire became a "civilization" or remained an "advanced culture" is not known.
[i.e. The cities of Sumer have names which are not Sumerian.The cities
of Sumer were founded by nation(s) more ancient than the Sumerians.]
People could consider that Ancient Ethiopia was an empire older than both Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations:
that Ethiopia's prehistory was very long..
1.Ethiopia has a very ancient prehistory involving large African migrations into Asia,and prehistoric empires.
2.Ethiopian cultures in Asia eventually collapsed under the pressure of desertification,Sumerian invasion/migration,
Egyptian domination, and various nomadic invasions.
Ancient Ethiopia was an important connection between Sumer and Egypt.
Question: Where is the evidence for an empire older than Egypt and Sumer?
Brief Answer: Names of Sumerian cities are older than Sumer,bible traditions suggest an empire older than Sumer,
other oral traditions and documents from the Fertile Crescent suggest an empire older than Sumer,Sumerian King List suggests
king(s) older than Sumer,extinct river systems that are now desert may yield artifacts if excavated archaeologically,
data about ancient skeletons from the fertile crescent need to be reexamined:especially the many "dolicocephalic","prognathous","platyrrhine"
skeletons(skulls) which could be interpreted as african or descendants of africans,some of the genetic haplogroups such as E1b1b that scientists
label "middle eastern" could bereinterpreted as "african nations in the middle east that disappeared". (i.e. interbred and disappeared.)
1. ETHIOPIAN ARABIA: the secret connection between Sumer and ancient Egypt [click]
1B. EVIDENCE OF AFRICAN POPULATIONS MIGRATING INTO ARABIA [click]
[African populations were able to migrate into western Arabia across the Red Sea.
Africans followed ancient rivers to reach the Persian Gulf and establish the lost kingdom of Havilah.
Such rivers are now extinct in Arabia,but they can be traced from wadis and satellite archaeology.]
1C. EVIDENCE OF AFRICANS IN MESOPOTAMIA [click]
Question: Where is the evidence of Africans in Mesopotamia?
Answer: The Sumerians could be considered a Eur-African race in Southern Mesopotamia.
That suggests that Black African populations once existed somewhere nearby Mesopotamia (probably in Arabia).
And it suggests Sumerian civilization itself brought African influences into Mesopotamia,if they were not already there.
2. SUMERIAN ETHNIC IDENTITY [click]
2B. EXTINCT RACES AND RACIAL REALITY [click]
[It is probable that Sumerians had an African lineage because they associated humanity with black colour (not white).
Sumerians had an "Eurafrican mulatto" appearance, even if they were not considered mulattos.
Sumerians defy racial classification.Mulatto physical features do not fit into any modern racial category because they appear as mixture of racial traits.
Here is proposed that Sumerians could be newly classified as "Brown Negroids",so as to oppose the lie that Sumerians were Caucasian. ]
2C. ANCIENT & MODERN CLASSIFICATION OF NATIONS (1.diagrams) [click]
[European scientists have tried to destroy the word "Hamite" by falsely defining it to mean Caucasoid.
Here is proposed that the word Hamite should be understood to mean Negroid.
When the word Hamite is used here, it is in the sense of "biblical Hamite"(Negroid).]
2D. ANCIENT & MODERN CLASSIFICATION OF NATIONS (2.conclusion) [click]
Sumer could be described as a Hamitic(Negroid) civilization.]
2E. THE INVENTIVENESS OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONS [click]
[ If Sumerians and Ancient Egyptians were inventive, it is not because they absorbed some caucasoid genetics.
Instead,the mulatto appearance of Sumerians and Ancient Egyptians might be connected with "hybrid vigour"(Heterosis).
Perhaps their hybrid appearance was connected to their energy and creativeness to found the most ancient civilizations.]
2F. CAN THE SUMERIAN CHANGE HIS SKIN ? [click]
[A concise answer to questions about Sumerian ethnicity.]
2G. Ancient Egyptian identity: North Africans/brown negroids - negroid appearance(phenotypes) and some individuals with dormant caucasian blood lines. [click]
[People who try to ethnically/racially classify ancient Egyptians might consider a documentary "The Human Family Tree" (National Geographic).
Such a documentary mentions a man named David: a man with African appearance(phenotype) and Caucasian bloodlines.]
2H. Eurasian Backflow Theory is consistent with expansion and contraction of a Greater Ethiopia/Ancient Ethiopia [click]
3. SUMERIAN LANGUAGE(1): Afro-Scythic paleolithic language. [click]
[Sumerian influenced by African and Scythian languages.
Sumerian language analysis as evidence of ancient Ethiopian Empire(s).]
3B. SUMERIAN LANGUAGE(2): Stone age Creole/Pidgin of the ancient Kish Empire. [click]
["And the whole earth was of one language" (Genesis 11:1).
Sumerian language unified many ancient nations.It was the lingua franca of the fertile crescent.
But was Ubaid culture a first attempt to unify nations?
3C. SUMERIAN LANGUAGE AND SAHEL CULTURE. [click]
[The Sahel is a region between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan Africa.It runs from West Africa
to East Africa. Archaeology suggests the Sahel region of Africa had links with the Middle-East
over thousands of years.]
3D. SUMERIAN TRANSLATION PAGE [click]
[ What did Sumerian language look like when written?
What did Sumerian language sound like when spoken?]
3E. ALTAIC SCYTHIA and SUMER: [click]
[Here is posited that the advanced cultures in ancient Scythia were Mongoloid not Caucasoid.(Eurasian not Indo-European)
i.e. Oxus River culture probably had dominant Altaic influences,as is now emerging from DNA analysis of the nearby Tocharian culture.
Both Oxus River culture and Tocharians were probably connected to the Lop Nor ancient trade centre.]
4. SUMERIAN KING LIST: Etana of Kish(Nimrod) [click]
4B. Etana the Founder of Kish [click]
[Etana as Nimrod and Enoch in the bible.
Revision of bibilical flood chronology.
Why Nimrod was not Sargon of Akkad.]
5.ANCIENT ETHIOPIAN RELIGION,Natufian Culture and Stone Temple religion of Gobeklii Tepe. [click]
[Hunter-gatherer religion and the religion of the great hunter.
Connections between Gobeklii Tepe in Turkey and the Nimrod religion of Mesopotamia.]
5B. ANCIENT RELIGION: The Sacrifice system. [click]
5C. ANCIENT RELIGION: Nimrod Religion is NOT Molech Worship
NIMROD RELIGION IS NOT MOLECH WORSHIP.
Nimrod religion vcould be described as a godly religionof worshipping the creator in times before writing existed. Thousands of years before the bible was written.
i.e. Ancient people marvelling at the heavens and worshipping a God(s) who they believed created the heavens, but people had no bible,
so they worshipped the creator in whatever ways were possible and appropriate for them thousands of years ago.
MOLECH WORSHIP IS A PERVERSE COUNTERFEIT OF THE NIMROD RELIGION .
Nimrod Religion was a religion of people coming together in cooperative groups,building structures,humans trying to keeping nature in balance,and worshipping a God(s) who created nature in such seeming balance.
Nimrod religion was a religious revolution that probably encouraged people to sacrifice animals to God(s) rather than sacrificing humans.
Molech Worship is different.Molech worship involves human sacrifice.
Molech worship is the religion of killing the Nimrod King: the Nimrod king being symbolised by a horned animal which is ritually sacrificed (horned bull,ram,horned owl,etc).
6. UBAID CULTURE: Before the Sumerians [click]
[Is Ubaid culture really Nimrod culture? Does Ubaid culture correspond to the Nimrod Kingdom?
Ubaid Culture spread from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea.
Was Ubaid culture the remnants of a diverse religio-political empire
that began in promise but became dispersed?]
6B. UBAID CULTURE ORIGINS: its possible Sahel and Dead Sea connections. [click]
[Here is postulated that Ubaidian culture was formed from interaction between Sahel and Dead Sea cultures.
i.e. The origins of Ubaid Culture might be from the African Sahel(Cushites) and Dead Sea techno-complex(Proto-Canaanites).]
7. ORIGIN OF THE SUMERIANS [click]
[Noone has found the homeland of the Sumerians because their homeland was flooded by sea.
Sumerians had their origin in the Persian Gulf Basin when it was dry land.
That forgotten land was an ancient trade centre.]
7B. THE MEANING OF EDEN [click]
8. WAS ANCIENT ETHIOPIA THE TRUE ATLANTIS ? [click]
Sumerian speaking populations associated with:
Arabian bifacial culture,"hunter and fisher peoples",
Eastern Arabia littoral region.
[note that Arabian Bifacial Culture were "pre-Arab" people, not Arabs.
Here is suggested that A.B. Culture were probably Eur-Africans.]
African speaking populations associated with:
Afro-arabian cultural complex on both sides of the Red Sea.
[General Information - added 03/02/2017]
1)See Journal paper(s) by anthropologist C.L. Brace for information about Natufians having negroid physical traits.
2) The archaeological site being labelled as Tartessos in CadizSpain (possibly biblical Tarshish,Tartarus)
might be an ancient Ethiopian colony, not the location of Atlantis.
i.e. see documentaries such as "Finding Atlantis" and "Atlantis Found"
i.e. The real Atlantis is probably ancient Ethiopia.
see URL http://www.sumerdecoded.com/african_arabia/was_ancient_ethiopia_the_true_atlantis.txt
Ancient Ethiopia was probably a Sea Power, given that it extended across the Red Sea and Bab-Al-Mandeb strait.
So it is possible that Tartessos was the furthest Ethiopian colony to the west.
Ancient Sea voyages from Ethiopia to Tartessos would have possible by sailing near shorelines,
around the coastlines of the Mediterranean Sea and outside the Straits of Gibraltar on to the Atlantic Shorelines of Europe and Africa.
Plato is his legend about Atlantis probably confused the location of [a colony of Ancient Ethiopia in Spain] with the location of [Ancient Ethiopia].
The sources that Plato used for his legend for Atlantis possibly gave the western extent of Atlantis sea empire from Ethiopian Arabia to
Spain (outside the pillars of Hercules[Straits of Gibraltar]) and Plato accidentally or deliberately chose the western side of the Atlantis Sea Empire
in Spain instead of Ethiopia. i.e. The real location of Atlantis homeland being the eastern side of the Sea Empire in Ethiopian Arabia.
The Ethiopian sea colony of Tartessos probably became an Phoenician(Canaanite) port city thousands of years later.
See Isaiah 66: 19 which mentions "Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow" . The mention of Bows sounds very Ethiopian.
In Egyptian writing and artwork Ethiopians were famous for their skill with bows.
And the Egyptian Nome(province) which is closest to Ethiopia is called "Ta-Seti" or "land of the bow".
Some lines of research might suggest that Ta-Seti was part of ancient Ethiopia ,and later became an Egyptian Nome(province).
3)See also book(Black Sumer) and interview(s) of author Hermel Hermstein for theories about migrations of Africans
through the African Sahel into Arabia.
[General Information - added 11/02/2017]
4)Archaeologists concede that Egypt and Ancient Ethiopia had a "shared history".
See documentary "The Black Pharaohs".
5)Natufian culture emerged in North Africa/Western Fertile crescent/Levant around the same time that Jomon and Chinook Culture emerged elsewhere.
There is possibly a submerged landmass between Japan and East Asian mainland that corresponds to the ancient trade centre of Jomon Culture.
[See information also other submerged landmasses such as Doggerland between Britain and the north west of European continent.]
6) The submerged landmass of Beringia and dry landmass of Death Valley might correspond to the ancient trade centres of the Chinook Culture.
[General Information - added 19/02/2017]
7) In the biblical genealogies, there is a possibility that Abraham (and his 2 sons Isaac,Ishmael) corresponds to Eber (and his 2 sons Joktan,Peleg) .
The biblical names Eber and the Abraham(Ebrahim) sound similar. Eber is significant because Semitic nations such as the Hebrews derives their national name from Eber.
The Genealogical line from Arphaxad to Abraham is overlong and probably goes in circles.Such errors in genealogy are probably something that happens when a nation
such as the Hebrews originally relied on oral traditions and later acquired the ability to write from older cultures such as Canaanite civilization.
The Hebrew Alphabet is derived from older alphabet used by Canaanite civilization which archaeologists label the Western Semitic alphabet.
See information elsewhere on this website about both Western Semitic and Eastern Semitic languages being of African origin.
The sons of Joktan are probably Arab tribes, so when Arabic people say they are descended from Ishmael, this possibly means the same as the sons of Joktan.
This belief was possibly based on the stone age religion of the great hunter Orion who is struck down by the snake
but is destined to be resurrected.(Genesis 3:15)
[later cultures corrupted this story so that Orion is struck down by a scorpion.]...
In modern astronomy, Lepus the Hare is the constellation below the feet of Orion.
However, in ancient civilizations such as Egypt and Persia,the constellation of Lepus is associated with a serpent.
i.e. An eagle grasping a serpent.
Eagles/Vultures are ancient symbols found in places such as Catal Huyuk and Gobeklii Tepe.
Eagles/Vultures probably represent the soul travelling to the afterlife or heaven.
Symbols of Eagles/Vultures are possibly connected with memories of The Cygnus constellation having been located at the north pole during the stone age.
Due to the planetary phenomenon of precession, over thousands of years ancient people every night watched the constellation of Cygnus
circle the north pole like a bird circling in the sky.
A symbol of an eagle overcoming a serpent is probably connected with stone age religion of the human soul overcoming death, and being reborn.
In Sumerian writings, imagery of the eagle overcoming the serpent is part of the story of Etana. Etana is the most ancient Kings in the Sumerian King List.
Etana is said to ascend to heaven on the wings of an eagle.
Etana probably corresponds to Nimrod mentioned in the christian bible.
Also, the names of the stars in the Lepus constellation suggest it is constellation associated with a villainous character corresponding the serpent in the bible.
The star Arnebo means 'the enemy of him that cometh'. i.e. The enemy of the messiah.
The star Sugia means 'the deceiver'.
9)The great Sphinx in Saqqara might be thousands of years older than the pyramids, in the sense that head of the sphinx might have originally been a yardang or rock shaped by wind erosion.
Yardangs sometimes look like ancient buildings/statues but they are natural formations.
Perhaps thousands of years before the pyramids, that yardang was carved into a head of a lion.
Then during the pyramid building age, maybe the head of lion was so badly eroded that the ancient egyptians decided to recarve it into the head of a pharaoh.
Also,perhaps they decided to carve a body for it, by cutting into the rock layers of the Saqqara plateau.
So the body of the sphinx is the same age as the pyramids, but the head of the sphinx might be thousands of years older.
Saqqara might have been a religious centre with a carved lion's head thousands of years before the pyramids.
[The way that pyramid causeway(s) are built to pass close the sphinx but avoid the sphinx might suggest that the sphinx was existing in some form before the pyramids.
i.e. The way that pyramid causeway(s) at Saqqara are built at a non-rightangle might suggest that the sphinx was existing in some form before the pyramids. ]
If stone temples were being built in the northern part of the fertile crescent by the Natufian culture,
then similar stone building projects were probably occuring in southern parts of the Fertile Crescent such as Saqqara by different culture(s)
In Gobeklii Tepe, the stone temples were buried and survived thousands of years under the soil.
In Saqqara, people didn't bury their stone buildings.In Saqqara, the stone temples kept upgrading over thousands of years until they became the Sphinx, the Sphinx Temple,the Osirion, and the Pyramids.
10) During the documentary "Cradle of the Gods" about Gobeklii Tepe, there is a face mask that looks brachycephalic.
The author(s) of this website would suggests that is a "stylised" carved face, so it does not realistically represent the faces of Natufians builders of Gobecklii Tepe. Maybe it represents something like a face with a long beard.
12,000 years ago, humans probably did not have brachycephalic faces.The Natufian builders of Gobeklii Tepe had dolicocephalic faces.
If carved faces look brachycephalic maybe they represented faces with long beards.
See also a similar looking face mask found at Abydos in ancient Egypt from around 500 years ago.
[Documentary: "Egypt Unwrapped - Part 1 - The Scorpion King". In the documentary there is a face mask that looks brachycephalic, but the ancient egyptians were dolicocephalic]
During the 1990s, rumours about a discovery of a 12000 year old structures(Gobeklii Tepe) were possibly circulating among groups of Germanic racists and Ku Klux Klan ,
then Robert Schoch and John Anthony West got the idea to start telling lies that the Ancient Egyptian Sphinx is 12000 years old instead of about 4500 years old.
The author(s) of this website would like to mention something about an "Ancient Aryan agenda" during the 1990s which is connected to "Ancient Alien agenda" popularised by Germanic/Scandinavian writers such as Erich Von Daniken.
Von Daniken's books became famous in the 1970s and afterward in connection with the "new age" movement.Von Daniken's books popularised the idea of "Ancient Aliens".
It might be noted that the supporters of "ancient aliens" hypotheses are invariably racists who want to consider Africans as incapable of creating civilizations,
so they write books whose purpose it is to make the African origin of civilization into a "falsely unsolvable mystery",
so as to then hypothesise that visitors from space created the first civilizations.
[The supporters of "ancient aliens" hypotheses are invariably racists, and people corrupted by racists...people who are gave hoped over decades that evidence of ancient Aryan civilization would be found.
Such people use coded language and mention "ancient alien" sources of civilization openly, but secretly they have put hope in the discovery of "ancient aryan" sources of civilization.
However, no ancient Aryan sources of civilization have been found. Aryan civilizations occur much later in the archaeological time-lines, so Aryan civilizations are not ancient.
Von Daniken and similar authors are people who make money by writing books containing false theories, and then selling them to as many people as possible.
After writing books with false theories, they make even more money by publicly speaking to groups of people who have an interest in their books.
[People who, for whatever reason, might want to know what Erich Von Daniken wrote in his books could save money by visiting public libraries, instead of buying his books.]
Later, during the 1990s, names such as Robert Schoch and John Anthony West became mentioned in the media in connection with suggestions that the Sphinx might be approximately 12,000 years old,
instead of the same age as the Pyramids 4500 years old.
[John Anthony West is a supporter of the writings of a racist author called Schwaller de Lubicz]
The author(s) of this website have reason to believe that Schoch and West got ideas about telling lies about the antiquity of the Sphinx from rumours
about Gobeklii Tepe that were circulating during the 1990s secretly among groups of Germanic racists.
Rumours about a discovery of a 12000 year old structures were possibly circulating among groups of Germanic racists and Ku Klux Klan , then Schoch and West got the idea to start telling lies that the
Ancient Egyptian Sphinx is 12000 years old instead of about 4500 years old.
john Anthony West might be a relative of Alan Sparkl from Sydney Australia.
Various pieces of information that possibly allow a deciphering who the biblical Abraham was:
The author(s) of this website think that patriarch Abraham was a way to remember Hammurabi: a way for the ancestors of Hebrews to express that Hebrews(Semites) consider themselves the offspring of the Amorite(Hamite) lawgiver Hammurabi.
Stories about Abraham were oral traditions going back to around 1800 B.C. . Sumer collapsed around 2000 B.C. and then the Amorite nation became dominant in Babylon (considered by western archaeologists as the Old-Babylonian empire).
Hammurabi was the most prominent of the Amorite Kings of Babylon.
The Pishon River was a short-cut for between Babylon and Canaan in Genesis 14 . Pishon River = modern "Wadi Al-Batin" extinct river system.
In The bible records an attempted invasion of Canaan by Hammurabi and his allies , via the Pishon River system.
The Pishon River was drying up, or dried up, becoming an extinct river system.
Hammurrabi perhaps was trying to invade Canaan, or maybe he was making war with the ancient trade centre of the Dead Sea.
Perhaps a nation known as the [Rephaim] /[Sons of Anak]/[Anakim] were inhabiting that Dead Sea ancient trade centre.
Amraphel king of Shinar Hammurabi (="Ammurapi") king of Babylonia
Arioch king of Ellasar Eri-aku king of Larsa
Chedorlaomer king of Elam (= Chodollogomor in the LXX) Kudur-Lagamar king of Elam
Tidal, king of nations (i.e. goyim, lit. 'nations') Tudhulu, son of Gazza/>
The bible calls Hammurabbi the lawgiver by several names: Amraphel, Abraham, Moses .
The oral traditions probably confused the names and were later written down.
See also Rev 16:12: About the Euphrates river drying up to make way for the Kings of the East.
The verse in Revelation might be based upon an oral tradition about Hammurabi using the dried up Pishon River System as a way to invade Canaan.
The story about Hebrew being slaves in Egypt is probably false. Such stories about Semites in Egypt are probably traditions of the Hyksos invasion and expulsion from Egypt around 1600 B.C.
The Hyksos were possibly the racial allies of the Hebrews.
Hebrews were probably a semitic nation that migrated from Haran Syria into or around the Zagros mountains and became vassals of the Old-Babylonian empire of Hammurabi(Amorite,Hamite).
According to the bible, Abraham comes from Ur of the Chaldees (Chaldaens,Babylonians). Ur used to be a Sumerian City, but later it became an Old-Babylonian city.
The Hebrews possibly came into contact with Medes and Persians along the migration route through Zagros Mountains or western Persia.So Hebrews and Persians are ancient allies of each other.
According to the bible, the homeland of Abraham is tUr of the Chaldees.However, fertile crescent oral traditions suggest the Haran in Syria is the real homeland of Abraham.
So Abraham seems to have 2 homelands.
Some time after becoming vassals of Hammurabbi, the Hebrews began travelling into the Pishon River system, and eventually they found the land of Canaan.
It is possible that Hammurabi had something to do with migration-invasion of Canaan, along with the violent conquest recorded in Genesis 14.
When the Hebrews found the land of Canaan via the Pishon River system, maybe they also found the Hyksos descendants who had been expelled from Egypt.
Perhaps some oral traditions about Hammurabbi became associated with the name Moses after the Hebrews became allied with the Hyksos descendants.
Moses might be Hyksos memory of Hammurrabi & old Babylon, which the Hebrews later remembered and wrote down in the bible.
There are mysterious characters in the bible which might be Hyksos cammanders during the conquest of Canaan by the Hebrews.
The "Comamader of the Armies of the Lord" in the bible book of Joshua chapters 5 and 6 might be a Hyksos commander.
Question: Was the conquest of Canaan really a conquest, or was it more like an migration-invasion over a period of centuries?
The name Eber and Abraham sound similar.
It is possible that Eber is the name of the a hebrew ancestor around the time of Hammurrabi that was a hebrew vassal leader(Semite) under the rulership of the Babylonian Hammurabi(Hamite).
So maybe Eber was similar to a lesser law-giver, who based his teachings upon the greater law-giver Hammurabi.
Eber is considered the ancestor/patriarch that gave his name to the Hebrew nation.
Arabs also seem to have traditions about Abraham, and being descended from Hagar the Egyptian.
Maybe Hagar was a Hyksos descendant who was expelled from Egypt.
The Bible/old testament possibly suggests that Arabs are descended from the patriarch Joktan, not Eber .
Is Joktan the Arab Abraham ?
Note also, that for some decades, the Babylonian Hammurabi was considered the first law giver in fertile crescent. However in more times, an earlier law code of Sumerian king Ur-Nammu has been discovered.
Quesrtion: When the bible says that Abraham comes from Ur , is the bible hinting that the oral traditions knew of an earlier law giver than Hammurabi?
However, because the bible writers were semites, they probably would not name Ur-Nammu if they knew about him, and so probably considered Hammurabi as the first law giver.
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